Welcome to the ITFreeTraining video on MBR and GPT partition tables. A partition table forms the low level data structure of a drive. Check out http://itfreetraining.com for more of our always free training videos. By the end of this video, you will understand what partition tables are available and what features each offer. Access the rest of the course http://ITFreeTraining.com/server Download the PDF handout http://ITFreeTraining.com/handouts/server/mbr-gpt.pdf Partition Tables 0:20 – Before a drive can be used by an operating system, whether it be physical or virtual, a partition table needs to be created on the drive. The partition table forms the low level data structure of the drive. This structure allows the drive to be divided up into individual partitions. If I were to have a physical drive that has a partition table created on it, the drive will contain only unused space. Before the unused space can be used, the drive needs to be divided up into one or more partitions. In this case, the drive will be divided up into 3 partitions. In many cases, it is common for a hard drive to be divided up into one large, main partition for the operating system and its data, and some smaller partitions for booting, recovery, and tools. After creation, a partition table can be formatted for the operating system to store data on. There are two partition tables that are available. These are MBR and GPT. MBR is older and this has more compatibility with older and obsolete operating systems and hardware. GPT is a newer standard and has more features but requires newer operating systems and, depending on what you are trying to achieve with it, it may also require newer hardware. To start with, I will look at MBR. Master Boot Record (MBR) 1:38 – The MBR or Master Boot Record, was first introduced on PC’s back in 1983. Since then it has become the de facto standard for PC’s working on DOS based, Windows based, and alternative operating systems like Linux. If the MBR partition table is used, this allows the drive to be divided up into a maximum for 4 primary partitions. The operating system allows each partition to be formatted to use a file system. So with MBR, the administrator could create 4 primary partitions and format them so the operating system can see 4 drives. In most cases, this should be sufficient for most requirements. However, in some rare cases it may be necessary for more than 4 partitions. If this is the case, one of the primary partitions can be changed into an extended partition. In the DOS days, this extended partition could hold 23 partitions. This was a limitation of DOS since it could only support 26 drive letters. On modern Windows operating systems, the administrators can create as many extended partitions as they wish. However, extended partitions are linked to each other so if you use a lot of them they could have an impact on performance. Also, the BIOS in the computer may not support booting from an extended partition; however, a workaround would be to place the boot loader on a primary partition that would boot the operating system stored in the extended partition. The MBR partition table offers the fundamental features required for an operating system and offers compatibility with older operating systems and hardware. The only limitation is that it is limited to 2 Terabytes of usable space. If the administrator uses MBR on a drive larger than 2 Terabytes, all the space after Terabytes will be unavailable to the operating system and thus unusable. There is some new technology that has been developed to extend the life of MBR which I will look at later on in this video. Before this, I will have a look at MBR’s replacement, GPT. See http://itfreetraining.com/server#/mbr-gpt for the rest of this description along with our always free training videos. This is only one video from the many free courses available on YouTube. References: “Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2012 Exam Ref 70-410” pg 42 - 43 "GUID Partition Table" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table "Partition table" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partition_table "Extended boot record" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_boot_record "Windows support for hard disks that are larger than 2 TB" http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2581408 "GUID Partition Table" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table "Advanced Format" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Format "Windows and GPT FAQ" https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/hardware/dn640535(v=vs.85).aspx#gpt_faq_how_many_partitions Credits Script: Phil Guld http://philguld.com Voice Talent: HP Lewis http://hplewis.com Companion Document: Phil Guld http://philguld.com Video Production: Kevin Luttman http://www.KevinLuttman.com Quality Assurance and Web Hosting: Edward M http://digitalmaru.com
This video will look at how to configure drives to use the GPT and MBR partition tables on Windows 8 and Windows 2012. Check out http://itfreetraining.com for more of our always free training videos. This will be done using the GUI and the command line. Download the PDF handout http://itfreetraining.com/handouts/server/mbr-gpt-demo.pdf Demonstration Windows 8 1. The disk management tool can be run by itself or as part of computer management. To open computer manager, open Windows Explorer, right click on computer and select the option manage. 2. Disk Management can be found under storage in Computer management. This tool will show you all the drives that are currently connected to that computer and allow you to perform administration on them like creating partitions and formatting. 3. When a new drive is added to Windows, this will appear in Disk Management as not initialized. The process of initializing the drive writes a signature on the drive. This means that if the drive is moved to a different controller inside the computer, Windows will recognize this as the same drive even though it is on a different controller. If the drive is moved to a different computer, Windows will be able to recognize this as a foreign drive to that computer and is up to administrator to decide if they want to use it. 4. To initialize a drive, right click the drive and select the option Initialize Disk. This will show you all the drives on the system that are currently not initialized. The process of initializing the drive also creates a partition table. On this screen you will need to decide if you want to use the MBR or GPT partition table. If you have multiple drives in the system that have not been initialized, it is just a matter of selecting the drives that you want initialized and they will all be initialized at once. 5. If the drive data does not have any partitions created on it, you can right click the drive and you will get the option to convert it to GPT or MBR - the opposite of the current partition table used on that drive at the time. If partitions are on the drive, the option will be grayed out and you will need to delete these partitions before you can use this option. 6. If you want to see which partition table that is currently being used on that drive, right click the drive and select properties. In the properties, select the volume tab. On the volume tab the partition table will be listed next to partition style. Demonstration Windows Server 2012 1. To access disk management in Windows Server 2012, open Server Manager and then select Computer Management from the tools menu. Once in computer management select Disk Management under Storage. 2. Even though Disk Management will essentially work the same in any editions of Windows, Windows Server 2012 has a policy that is set differently than on the desktop versions of Windows. When a new drive is added to Windows Server 2012 you will see a message stating "Offline (The disk is offline because of policy set by an administrator". In order to use the drive, the administrator will have to right click the drive and select online. This is to prevent a drive accidently being added to the server and causing unexpected results. Essentially it adds an extra step and adds a little bit more security to the server. The biggest reason for this is the SAN (Storage Area Network) could share the same drive to multiple servers. If two servers access the same drive at the same time this can cause problems and is not recommended when it can be avoided. 3. To change the disk policy in Windows Server 2012, this needs to done using DiskPart. This can be run by opening a command prompt and running DiskPart. 4. To see the current SAN policy in DiskPark run the command SAN. To change the policy enter in SAN POLICY=OnlineAll or SAN POLICY=OfflineShared. 5. Disk Management can also be run as a separate application rather than as part of Computer Management. To do this, run diskmgmt.msc from run. 6. If you right click a drive on Disk Management you have the option to online or offline the drive. If the drive is online, you also have the option "Initialize Disk" if the disk has not been initialized before. You will then be asked if you want to use an MBR or GPT partition table. Description to long for YouTube. Please see the following link for the rest of the description. http://itfreetraining.com/server#mbr-gpt-demo See http://YouTube.com/ITFreeTraining or http://itfreetraining.com for our always free training videos. This is only one video from the many free courses available on YouTube. References "Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2012 Exam Ref 70-410" pg 42-43
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GPT Vs MBR in Hindi Video explains What is Difference between MBR and GPT Partition Style by Jagvinder Thind.